Schengen Visa Zone
The Schengen Area comprises 26 European states: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. They have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders. The area functions as a single jurisdiction for international travel purposes, with a common visa policy.
The Schengen Area includes four states that are not EU members. Two of the non-EU members, Iceland and Norway, are part of the Nordic Passport Union and are officially classified as ‘states associated with the Schengen activities of the EU’. Switzerland and Liechtenstein are allowed to participate in the same manner.
De facto, the Schengen Area also includes three European micro-states – Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City. Two EU members – Ireland and (still) the United Kingdom – negotiated opt-outs from Schengen and continue to operate the Common Travel Area systematic border controls with other EU member states.
Investor Visa and European Citizenship
Some investor visa schemes lead to citizenship of the EU country. That means the freedom to live and work anywhere within the European Union. EU countries include: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Republic of Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK.